Monterrico

Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Monterrico

Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Monterrico

NaturalReserve (Chiquimulilla channel)

The Marine coast zone it is define as the geographic space between the ocean and earth and the interconnections with the ecosystems that exist in such space.Guatemala has 403 km of line coast 255 in the Pacific ,wich correspond to the Chiapas-Nicaragua province ,because of its biogeography characteristic and oceanography and 148 in the Atlantic littoral.The estuary covers approximately 140 miles,where 4,000 hectares correspond to mangrove forest, mainly concentrated between Ocos and Champericoat west,and Las Lisas at east.

The Chiquimulilla channel is 140 km wide ,and it is located in Santa Rosa,Guatemala and represents an Ecosystem of great importance for the surrounding communities(Monterrico,El Pumpo,La Curvina,La Avellana,Agua Dulce,El Cebollito,and Las Quechas)and for the entire Repubblic,because it is a source of food tourism,wood,medicinalplants,transportacion,ecc.

FAUNA

The principal purpose of the reserve is protect the wild diversity of flora and fauna from

deforestation,water contamination,excessive hunting,mainly of wild reptiles such as Crocodilus fuscus(Caiman),Iguana iguana(Iguana verde)valuated for its meet and leather,Dermochelys

coriacea(Baule)Lepidochelys olivacee(Parlama blanca)and Chelonia sp.(Parlama negra)valuated for it's eggs.Their habitat are been destroyed by humans,this produces interference between the biological live cycles reducing the probabilities of reproduction success,hence its extinction.

All the specimens mentioned above are included in the red list of endegenered fauna under category3 which means that the trade is subject to regulation within its jurisdiction to prevent or restrict exploitation,and they need cooperation of other parties for the effective control.

Today CECON-CONAP has a rereproduction programs for the reintroduction of these animals to their natural habitat.This program attracts a lot of tourists from all over the world that want to be in contact with nature ,especially in August when the turtles arrive to the beach to lay their eggs.Some people sell the collected eggs to CECON where are incubated from approximately48 to 60 days depending on the temperature,to be subsequently released to the sea,but many more are consunmated as a subsistence media.

The nature reserve offers the birdwatcher tours,being than 220 species represented between migratory and local.

Siguenza de Miceo(2006-7)reporte a duck abundance of4,476 sightings during January to March of Cinnamon tea (Anas cyanoptera)blue-winged teal(Anas discors),black -bellied whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)and fulvous whistling duck(Dendrocygna bicolor)in the lagoons near to the reserve.

A small mammal's diversity of the following families has been reported:opossum(Didelphiade)

collared anteater(Myrmecophagidae)nine-banded armadillo(Dasypodidae)squirrel(Sciuridae)

hairy porcupine(Erethizontidae).

During the winter the amount of fish in the channel decreases as increases the water level because these fish can migrate to the rivers or lagoons connected to the channel.26 species has been reported by Hernandez-Quintana(2007)such bagre(Anus sp)mojarra(Cichlasoma)robalo(Centropomus)pupulo

(Dorminator sp)liseta(Mugi)Also Quintana(2007)reported;Lile gracilis,Astyanas aeneus,Cathorops ps,Ramdia parryi,Gabionellus microdon,Poecilia butleri,Amphilopus macracanthus, Parachromis managuense,Oreochromis aureus ,Eleotris pictus,and Gobiomorus maculatus.

The floristic composition is based on trees,vines,aquatic grasses and epiphytes.

tn_manglaresfoto_home_page2.jpg

MANGROVE FOREST ECOSYSTEM

The genera ;Acacia ,Crescentia,Bursera,Gliricidia,Enterolobium andCoccoloba represent the ground native vegetation.The channel native vegetation it's being determinate by tree species of mangrove;

red white and black mangrove(Rhizophora mangle,Laguncularia racemosa,and Avicennia germinans)plus botoncillo(Conocarpus erectus)guachimol(Pithecolombinum sp)reported by Gomezin associacion with Pachira,Thypa,Eichornia,Pistia,Ninphae,Luffa,Neptunia,Lentibularia,and other.The acquatic vegetation depends on a seasonal climate cycle that starts in June with the initialization of the rainy days ,when Maria Linda,Rio Hondo,Coyolate and other small rivers that feed the channel starts to grow,as the flow become stronger than the flow of water produced by the falling tide.

Therefore the channel is filled with freshwaters althought there is a constant crash of flows,the flow from the river reduces the salinity levels in the channel.

This two-inlet system allows the growth of aquatic plant with low salinity tolerance;

for example nape or balona (Nymphaea ampla)nympha(Eichomia crassipes) tul( Thypha sp)

Lechuguilla(Pistia stratoides)pashte(Luffa sp)dormilon(Neptunia sp)cola de yegua(Lentibularia sp)balonilla (Ninpha sp)

From June to November the aquatic vegetation provides refuge and food for several animals.

The flower of Nymphaea and Eichomia attract a lot of insects that constitute food for fish amphibious,reptiles and birds.The big extension of Thypha called tulares of reeds provide refuge to alligators and is the turle's main source of food,according with the guide,the turtles used to rummage around the base of the plant looking for tuber roots rich in starch.The people use Thypa leaves to make hats,baskets,mats,etc.

The Monterrico Natural Reserve supplies medicine to the local people as well;due to lack of economic resources,many of these people rely on natural sources.

tn_ninfa_monterricopagweb2.jpg

The pashte vines(Luffa sp)grown over the mangrove,its fruit are called pashte or sponge,the local people used a seed infusion of this vine as a nasal decongestant;one or two drops of this infusion is enought to relieve symptons.

The four-eyed fish soup(Anableps sp)it is used for stimulated the production of milk in the mothers with hipogalactia,it is known that this kind of fish doesn't have a great flavor but it is very good to medicinal pourpose.

According with the historical description of Monterrico Master Plan,the wetlands,mangrove forest,channels and lagoons,of Monterrico natural reserve,where inhabitaded by a X

Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Monterrico

NaturalReserve (Chiquimulilla channel)

The Marine coast zone it is define as the geographic space between the ocean and earth and the interconnections with the ecosystems that exist in such space.Guatemala has 403 km of line coast 255 in the Pacific ,wich correspond to the Chiapas-Nicaragua province ,because of its biogeography characteristic and oceanography and 148 in the Atlantic littoral.The estuary covers approximately 140 miles,where 4,000 hectares correspond to mangrove forest, mainly concentrated between Ocos and Champericoat west,and Las Lisas at east.

The Chiquimulilla channel is 140 km wide ,and it is located in Santa Rosa,Guatemala and represents an Ecosystem of great importance for the surrounding communities(Monterrico,El Pumpo,La Curvina,La Avellana,Agua Dulce,El Cebollito,and Las Quechas)and for the entire Repubblic,because it is a source of food tourism,wood,medicinalplants,transportacion,ecc.

FAUNA

The principal purpose of the reserve is protect the wild diversity of flora and fauna from

deforestation,water contamination,excessive hunting,mainly of wild reptiles such as Crocodilus fuscus(Caiman),Iguana iguana(Iguana verde)valuated for its meet and leather,Dermochelys

coriacea(Baule)Lepidochelys olivacee(Parlama blanca)and Chelonia sp.(Parlama negra)valuated for it's eggs.Their habitat are been destroyed by humans,this produces interference between the biological live cycles reducing the probabilities of reproduction success,hence its extinction.

All the specimens mentioned above are included in the red list of endegenered fauna under category3 which means that the trade is subject to regulation within its jurisdiction to prevent or restrict exploitation,and they need cooperation of other parties for the effective control.

Today CECON-CONAP has a rereproduction programs for the reintroduction of these animals to their natural habitat.This program attracts a lot of tourists from all over the world that want to be in contact with nature ,especially in August when the turtles arrive to the beach to lay their eggs.Some people sell the collected eggs to CECON where are incubated from approximately48 to 60 days depending on the temperature,to be subsequently released to the sea,but many more are consunmated as a subsistence media.

The nature reserve offers the birdwatcher tours,being than 220 species represented between migratory and local.

Siguenza de Miceo(2006-7)reporte a duck abundance of4,476 sightings during January to March of Cinnamon tea (Anas cyanoptera)blue-winged teal(Anas discors),black -bellied whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)and fulvous whistling duck(Dendrocygna bicolor)in the lagoons near to the reserve.

A small mammal's diversity of the following families has been reported:opossum(Didelphiade)

collared anteater(Myrmecophagidae)nine-banded armadillo(Dasypodidae)squirrel(Sciuridae)

hairy porcupine(Erethizontidae).

During the winter the amount of fish in the channel decreases as increases the water level because these fish can migrate to the rivers or lagoons connected to the channel.26 species has been reported by Hernandez-Quintana(2007)such bagre(Anus sp)mojarra(Cichlasoma)robalo(Centropomus)pupulo

(Dorminator sp)liseta(Mugi)Also Quintana(2007)reported;Lile gracilis,Astyanas aeneus,Cathorops ps,Ramdia parryi,Gabionellus microdon,Poecilia butleri,Amphilopus macracanthus, Parachromis managuense,Oreochromis aureus ,Eleotris pictus,and Gobiomorus maculatus.

The floristic composition is based on trees,vines,aquatic grasses and epiphytes.

tn_manglaresfoto_home_page2.jpg

MANGROVE FOREST ECOSYSTEM

The genera ;Acacia ,Crescentia,Bursera,Gliricidia,Enterolobium andCoccoloba represent the ground native vegetation.The channel native vegetation it's being determinate by tree species of mangrove;

red white and black mangrove(Rhizophora mangle,Laguncularia racemosa,and Avicennia germinans)plus botoncillo(Conocarpus erectus)guachimol(Pithecolombinum sp)reported by Gomezin associacion with Pachira,Thypa,Eichornia,Pistia,Ninphae,Luffa,Neptunia,Lentibularia,and other.The acquatic vegetation depends on a seasonal climate cycle that starts in June with the initialization of the rainy days ,when Maria Linda,Rio Hondo,Coyolate and other small rivers that feed the channel starts to grow,as the flow become stronger than the flow of water produced by the falling tide.

Therefore the channel is filled with freshwaters althought there is a constant crash of flows,the flow from the river reduces the salinity levels in the channel.

This two-inlet system allows the growth of aquatic plant with low salinity tolerance;

for example nape or balona (Nymphaea ampla)nympha(Eichomia crassipes) tul( Thypha sp)

Lechuguilla(Pistia stratoides)pashte(Luffa sp)dormilon(Neptunia sp)cola de yegua(Lentibularia sp)balonilla (Ninpha sp)

From June to November the aquatic vegetation provides refuge and food for several animals.

The flower of Nymphaea and Eichomia attract a lot of insects that constitute food for fish amphibious,reptiles and birds.The big extension of Thypha called tulares of reeds provide refuge to alligators and is the turle's main source of food,according with the guide,the turtles used to rummage around the base of the plant looking for tuber roots rich in starch.The people use Thypa leaves to make hats,baskets,mats,etc.

The Monterrico Natural Reserve supplies medicine to the local people as well;due to lack of economic resources,many of these people rely on natural sources.

The pashte vines(Luffa sp)grown over the mangrove,its fruit are called pashte or sponge,the local people used a seed infusion of this vine as a nasal decongestant;one or two drops of this infusion is enought to relieve symptons.

The four-eyed fish soup(Anableps sp)it is used for stimulated the production of milk in the mothers with hipogalactia,it is known that this kind of fish doesn't have a great flavor but it is very good to medicinal pourpose.

According with the historical description of Monterrico Master Plan,the wetlands,mangrove forest,channels and lagoons,of Monterrico natural reserve,where inhabitaded by a Xinca settlement called Atiquipaque from the post-classic period,with the same name ,where zoological structures has been found in concordance with other site near to the place. Separately there are sites called Concheros,that are monticules made of crushed shells pertaining to an early period.

Different economic activies take place in different localities;the people of Agua Dulce village are dedicated to the salt production and fishing.In the other localities maize is cultivated ,with other products,like;pashte sesame,water melon,fishing,tourism,birdwatching.

BY

ASSOCIACION FLAAR Mesoamerica

inca settlement called Atiquipaque from the post-classic period,with the same name ,where zoological structures has been found in concordance with other site near to the place. Separately there are sites called Concheros,that are monticules made of crushed shells pertaining to an early period.

Different economic activies take place in different localities;the people of Agua Dulce village are dedicated to the salt production and fishing.In the other localities maize is cultivated ,with other products,like;pashte sesame,water melon,fishing,tourism,birdwatching.

BY

ASSOCIACION FLAAR Mesoamerica